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Root Cause Analysis
Ford's Global 8D


What is Facilitation?
Facilitation is a leadership function, without being a leader! It involves ensuring that all team members share responsibilities. It also entails assisting the leader in managing the team, without being a manager.
When a team is assembled to complete a specific task, roles are assigned and typically adhered to. One of the functions that needs to be identified as the team is formed, is the Facilitator.
A strong Facilitator should be someone who can view the issues of the team and its members from a "neutral point-of-view". One might draw the analogy of a Facilitator as a "civilian" rather than a subject matter expert (SME). That should be mistaken for the fact that the Facilitator can be an SME.

The success of the team depends on the ability of a Facilitator to make sure procedures are followed, and that there are few diversions from the task at hand. Contrary to belief, the Facilitator need not be actively involved for the entire life span of the team. Once the team has reached a point of maturity, the Facilitator may step down and actually cease to be a part of the team.
Given the above description, an external Facilitator is often a good way to progress. For further information, please contact Quality Training and Development Services:
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Root Cause Analysis
What is root cause analysis?
In simple terms, root cause is the event or events that caused a deviation (or difference) in a product, process or service, from an expected level of performance to an n inferior level of functionality. What should be is no longer the case due to a relevant change in a product process or service.
Unfortunately, and too many times as the case may be, time is not properly spent defining the problem. The trend, in industry, is to "see a problem, fix a problem" or to solve for the root cause, before understanding the problem in its entirety.
Imbedded in Ford's Global 8D process is the fourth discipline (D4), which is entitled Define and Verify Root Cause and Escape Point. Root cause analysis hinges on the premise that a proper and thorough effort was put forth in the problem description stage, allowing for the team members to genuinely seek out what caused the problem the customer has experienced.
Who is involved in root cause analysis?
Root cause analysis should be the responsibility of a cross-functional team that includes members from the area or areas where the problem occurred. The team should also include anyone else with insight into the product, process or service.
Fundamentals of root cause analysis
Tied into root cause analysis are the concepts of comparative analysis, which looks at differences and changes, theory generating and theory testing. Once most likely cause is determined from the list of theories, verification is the next step. Other components are the cause & effect, or fishbone analysis, and process mapping or process flow-charting, to name a few.
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Ford's Global Eight Disciplines (Global 8D)
The Global 8D process is an important element for team problem solving and for complementing the efforts of continuous improvement.
D0 - Prepare for the Ford Global 8D Process
Determines whether or not the internal or external customer needs to be protected from any adverse effects. Explains how to use the Global 8D application criteria to determine whether or not to use the Global 8D process to solve the problem. Details the assessing questions to use as a formative process check and a confirmation of readiness to continue to the next step.
D1 - Establish the Team  


Details key points, including team membership, team roles, operating procedures, team system model, and team synergy.
D2 - Describe the Problem
Describes the internal/external problem by identifying "what is wrong with what". Detailing the problem in quantifiable terms. Develops a Problem Statement and a Problem Description (what, where, when, how big).
D3 - Develop Interim Containment Action
Develops an interim containment action to protect the customer from the problem identified in the previous discipline. Distinguishes between the verification and the validation processes. Describes the Management (Deming) Cycle that constitutes an action plan.
D4 - Define and Verify Root Cause and Escape Point
Identifies the root cause(s) of the problem, and how the problem escaped to the customer. Explains the techniques of comparative analysis, identifying and testing theories to find root cause.
D5 -Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions for Root Cause and Escape Point
Examines the basic styles and steps in decision-making. Identifies the Global 8D process criteria for Permanent Corrective Actions. Useful tools and techniques overviewed include decision-making, risk analysis, and action planning.
D6 - Implement and Validate Permanent Corrective Actions
Covers the elements of planning and problem prevention, as well as the characteristics of successful implementation of the permanent corrective actions. Potential problem analysis is demonstrated. The Paynter Chart is introduced as a useful tool for monitoring ongoing validation of the Permanent Corrective Action.
D7 - Prevent Recurrence
Identifies improvement of the systems, policies, procedures and practices of the problem just studied. Demonstrates the value of also identifying other causes of the problem and actions that should be taken.
D8 - Recognize Team and Individual Contributions
Looks at the theory of recognition and the closure process and how to complete unfinished team business. Key concepts include recognition and completing unfinished team business.



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